Like tamoxifen, clomiphene citrate (also known by the trade name clomid) is also a SERM (selective estrogen receptor modulator), which means that this drug may have anti-estrogenic action in some parts of the body, such as breast tissue and hypothalamus, and may have estrogenic action in other parts, such as the liver and pituitary gland.

Clomiphene was initially used in the 1970s for the treatment of female infertility due to anovulation and even today this is its main therapeutic purpose. Since the 1980s, clomiphene has been used among bodybuilders and steroid users to control gynecomastia and also to help with the recovery of the HPT axis (hypothalamic-pituitary -testicular axis) after the use of steroids in post-cycle therapy. This effect of clomiphene is due to its anti-estrogenic activity in the hypothalamus inhibiting negative estrogen feedback, which stimulates the release of GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) by the hypothalamus and LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) by the pituitary gland. Gonadotropins - LH and FSH - in turn, will stimulate testosterone synthesis and spermatogenesis in the testicles, respectively. In any case, clomiphene appears to be inferior to tamoxifen, although it has been further studied for the treatment of fertility in men and women.

The usual doses for the treatment of gynecomastia and for recovery of the HPT axis in CPT vary from 50 to 100mg per day. Clomiphene has little risk of side effects and the most known side effect in steroid users is visual problems, blurred vision, which can be corrected by stopping use. Like tamoxifen, Clomid also lowers serum IGF-1 levels, which, it is speculated, could hinder gains in a cycle. In CPT, its use with HCG and sometimes tamoxifen is common, although both (tamoxifen and clomiphene) are SERMs with very similar effects and functions.

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